Liszt Transcendental ï¿½tudes
1826, revised 1837, revised 1852
- ï¿½tude No. 1 (Preludio) C major
- ï¿½tude No. 2 [Fusees*] A minor
- ï¿½tude No. 3 (Paysage) F major
- ï¿½tude No. 4 (Mazeppa) D minor
- ï¿½tude No. 5 (Feux Follets) B-flat major
- ï¿½tude No. 6 (Vision) G minor
- ï¿½tude No. 7 (Eroica) E-flat major
- ï¿½tude No. 8 (Wilde Jagd) C minor
- ï¿½tude No. 9 (Ricordanza) A-flat major
- ï¿½tude No. 10 [Appassionata*] F minor
- ï¿½tude No. 11 (Harmonies du Soir) D-flat major
- ï¿½tude No. 12 (Chasse-Neige) B-flat minor
*Liszt gave titles to all but numbers 2 and 10, to which the editor
Busoni added his own titles)
In the the 1720s, J. S. Bach
wrote a set 24 Preludes and Fugues in all keys to demonstrate the virtues of
the well-tempered tuning system. He followed up with another set of 24 (book
2) and together they are often just known as The 48.
Bach's purpose was partly to show that a well-tempered tuning system
would allow all 24 keys to be played without major tuning problems. However
it also served as a splendid primer right down to the present day for the
student to get practice at playing in all keys.
Since Bach's time, many other composers wrote sets of studies or etudes
with the purpose of honing particular keyboard skills. Through the early to
mid 19th century, most musicians settled on the equal temperament tuning
system which gives a compromise of equally good and equally bad tuning in
all keys, so a set of etudes in all keys became more a technical exercise
in being able to read and play in all keys. In addition, the particular
mixture of black and white keys in each key provided the fingers with
differing ease of playing certain patterns and combinations.
The teenage Liszt set about writing 12 such etudes - 12 because he only
included the keys with flats (or nothing) in their key signature. The mid
career Liszt then expanded these pieces to make them truly transcendental in
their demands. He later revised them again and while keeping them prodigious
in their demands, revised the passages that called for extra large hands.
Piano Solo. Composed by Franz Liszt (1811-1886). Edited by Ernst-Gunter Heinemann. Sheet Music. Paperbound. Henle Music Folios. Pages: IX and 123. Classical. Softcover. 131 pages. G. Henle #HN717. Published by G. Henle (HL.51480717).